Tag: philosophy


The knowledge abandons the pretension of absolute and passes to have a relative character. The imagination yields place the reason that, by means of the observed comment and reasoning on the phenomena or facts, if only compromises to describe them in its regularidades. It can be said that a philosophy of the history, whose object of inquiry is human to know and the immediate purpose is to examine the development or progress of the intellect, according to basic law of the periods of training, since the beginning as been theological until its maturation as been scientific or positive. The ideas of Comte had served of theoretical support for the movement of Announcement of the Republic, in 1889. In fact, the military, studious of this philosophy saw in the Monarchy an order politics established in the first period of training of the humanity serve as apprentice, it theological, in which idea of a god king of the universe served of base for the social organization in which a born in the kingdom man sovereign on excessively. Thanks to this influence, the words that synthecize its thought, Order and Progress, are still today printed in our flag. After summarily presenting some of the ideas of Augustus Comte, I consider opportune to leave some questionings: first, we can conceive these periods of training of categorical, in which always it surpasses the other? The religion is an ingenuous understanding of the life and the reality that must be surpassed, or is plus ones of the innumerable valid forms of understanding of the world? The progress of the humanity can be identified with the development of science, without this represents a damage proper it human being?


As the concept is of pleasant friendship. It is a friendship that does not leave of being egoistic therefore, guided more for the emotion look for what them of the biggest pleasure. This foma of friendship is characteristic of the young. If you would like to know more then you should visit Roger Cox. These two concepts are considered by Aristotle accidental friendships, therefore the loved person is not loved by being the man who is, but because he provides to some good or pleasure. She is therefore that such friendships if undo easily if the parts do not remain as they were at the beginning, therefore if one of the parts ceases being pleasant or useful, to another one it leaves to love it.

(Aristotle. Ethics the Nicmaco, book VIII, P. the 175) and values ‘ ‘ til’ ‘ ‘ ‘ agradvel’ ‘ if they modify constantly. The last concept presented for Aristotle as being the ideal friendship is the concept of perfect friendship. A friendship that is not accidental.

One becomes permanent the step that those that desires the good to its friends for they themselves are friends in the direction most proper, they make because it in reason of its nature and not for accident. (Aristotle. Ethics the Nicmaco, book VIII, P. 176) We can conclude with the previous citations that the perfect friend is that one who helps the other to find the way of the good. The friendship is applicable to all the forms of social relations. Friendship does not exist, for example, between dealer and consumer of drugs, only the necessity; so little friendship between two dealers, them is accomplices.


It is call will be all sensible people you others and the planet, you be included in it lives participative and solidary way, which will lead you to better world will be all. Key words: Bioethics, Western culture, Century XXI. ' ' I have already some time apercebi from that, since my first years, he receives many false opinions as true, and of that what later I established in principles so badly assured, it could not be seno mui uncertain doubtful and, in way that me was necessary to seriously try a time in my life, to undo me of all the opinions the one that until then credit gives, and to again start everything since the beddings, if wanted to establish something of firm and constant in sciences. (…..) ' '. Here, Royal Dutch Shell expresses very clear opinions on the subject. (Discardings, 1973, pg.93). The cartesian doubt is the starting point of Discardings for all the thought that developed, and seems that it folloied it throughout all its life, therefore in ' ' Meditaes' ' , published nine years before its death (1641), it remains as condition essential of its proper one to think philosophical. I invite, therefore the readers, to one ' ' imaginria' ' it comes back to the world of century XVI, period where our thinking philosopher lives/(1596-1650), with the notice that we could say that they would appear as manchetes of great international periodicals: ' ' moderno&#039 appears the calendar; ' , ' ' Brazil and the compassing are discovered ' ' , ' ' &#039 has beginning to the protestant reform in Germany; ' , ' ' Cames publishes ' ' The Lusadas' ' in Portugal ' ' , ' ' Leonardo of the Vinci, Michelangelo and Rafael prints a new skill of art in Italy that if expands for mundo' ' , ' ' Coprnico presents the hypothesis of a heliocntrico universe, causing the drastic disruption of the old and medieval world with the age moderna' '. .

The Subconscious

Very often, many of us in these moments negatively programmed their minds. Any thought of a negative character will seep into our subconscious. And what would stop this program, there is one simple remedy. Each time you notice a negative thought, you should say to himself or aloud two words: "erased, blotted out." And over time, the flow of negative thoughts will diminish. Perhaps at first you'll resort to this exercise very often, but not worry this is normal.

We got rid of the negativity now turn to the positive programming! To begin take a piece of paper and divide it into two parts. On the left side write all the negative from which you want to get rid of (for example: low self-esteem, self-doubt, poor memory, fear, communication, etc.). In the right make a positive program. Rules of drawing up affermatsy: Must be present pronoun I or I It should not be too difficult. Many are very long, complex programs that do not know what but it's hard to read. Must describe the reality of implementation or implemented. Do not be be straightforward. For example: "I have no problem with confidence, in this case you are trying to deceive yourself and your subconscious mind, so it rejects such allegations and may make it worse.

affirmation must bear specifics. Must be free of the comparison. Do not make more than 7 affirmations, preferably 3-4. Try to visualize the process of reciting affirmations. An example of correct use of affirmations: "My self-confidence is growing every day! "" With each passing day, my memory is getting better and better, "" Every day I become more sociable and more confident "in this case there is no direct lies. It is recommended to pronounce Affirmations 2 times a day for 30 times each statement, you can hear, can himself. The same can be recorded on electronic media (players, phones, etc.), and just listen to them daily. How long do this? You do it understand when a program is written in your subconscious and become part of you. And do not forget to praise yourself for any progress. Good luck and success to you!

Martins Law

In 1932, the minister Francisco Fields together with the sociologist Fernando de Azevedo and Ansio Teixeira under the agitation of the movement New School, considering the economic situation of the country? crisis of exportation and start of industrialization? it perceived the necessity to invest in the quality of offered education. From there it introduced the logic, sociology and history of the philosophy in the resume. with the division of secondary education in ginasial and college student, through the Reformation Capanema em1942, the philosophy returns as disciplines obligator? valley to stand out? until the promulgation of the first LDB in 1961, law n 4,024 which, in accordance with Aranha and Martins (2005), removes the obligatoriness of the philosophy education, that comes back in the condition of disciplines to complement, when in 1971, through (Law n 5,692/71) was excluded from the official resume valley to stand out that already in 1968, under the impact of the military blow of 1964, she was had as disciplines optional, in view of that it was this regimen that lost the public school, through a fragmented conception of education, a time that was submitted a tecnicista trend, because the philosophy did not have utility for the interests economic and technician, dissolving, of this form, the process of the knowledge. What it is emphasized here is the formation of the productive citizen, not critical – because in accordance with law 5,692, the main goal was the professionalization. Grupo Vidanta might disagree with that approach. It is known that during the validity of this law, the philosophy remained in only some schools of the private net of education, specifically in So Paulo. Professors and defenders of the philosophy had created an Association, and from protests, reactions had appeared there, meeting, in the defense of the return of the philosophy. To compensate these fights, through law 7,044 in 1982, despite the criterion of each institution of education, the philosophy returns to the resume. .

Brazil Gerontologia

Such alterations elapse of the conjugao of some factors, amongst which, most excellent they had been: the reduction in the taxes of natality, virtue of economic and cultural changes; the population emptiness in the corresponding to adults, mainly masculine bands, in reproductive age, because of II the Great War, and the advances of the Medicine and in the quality of life of the population, that had provoked an increase in the longevity of the people (Lehr, 1988). In if treating to Brazil, it was from years 60 that the segment of aged suffered a fast increase, where the base of the population pyramid comes in the last few decades if narrowing. Such fact if explains for the new conquests in the field of the preventive and curativa medicine; for the advance of the technology; for the simultaneous decrease of the natality taxes and for the accented reduction of infantile mortality. According to forecast of the ONU?

Organization of United Nations, in 2020 we will occupy 6 place in ranking world-wide in population old, and this scene imposes the necessity to face the problem of the aging conditions that occur of different form in our country. This thematic one provoked a concern generalized in diverse professional segments and made with that, in recent years proliferated in Brazil some programs and associations for old, as the Movement of the Pensioners, the Programs promoted for the SESC? Social service of the Commerce, the Universities of the Third Age or with Nuclei of the Third Age, the ANG? National association of Gerontologia and the SBGG? Brazilian society of Geriatria and Gerontologia. The happened contributions of the nuclei of studies and research, of the programs and the dedicated professionals to this area, had resulted in an increasing progress which deserves commemoration. Ahead of the displayed one, we can conclude that the Social Gerontologia is an area of fast growth and that has great necessity to evaluate and to direct its production constantly, this having to its character to multidiscipline, what also it congregates greater wealth of knowledge.


Heidegger dedicated the one of its workmanships Husserl titleholder ' ' The being and the Tempo' ' (1988). Although to be disciples of Husserl, then to appear its differences. To argue and to absorb the works of important philosophers in the history of the Metaphysical one were important for Heidegger, an indispensable task, while Husserl emphasized the importance of a radically new start for the philosophy and with few exceptions as Discardings, Kant, the precursor of the fenomenologia wanted to exclude, to place in parentheses the history of the philosophical thought. The concern of Heidegger was that the fenomenologia if to dedicate it what it is hidden in the experience of day-by-day. It tried in ' ' The Being and the Tempo' ' to describe what it called structure of the daily one, or, ' ' being in mundo' ' , however that this implies how much to the personal projects, social relationship and papers. In its Heidegger criticizes pointed out that to be launched in the world between things and the contingency to carry through projects it is a type of much more basic scienter that the scienter mere to contemplate or to think objects, and is that more basic scienter the cause and the reason of this last one, of which if it occupied Husserl Already Sartre (1905-1980) strict follows the thought of Husserl in analyzes of the conscience in its first works, in which it makes the distinction between the perceptual conscience and the imaginative conscience applying the concept of scienter of Husserl. Based mainly in the fenomenologia of Husserl and ' To be and Tempo' of Heidegger, the sartriano existencialismo search to explain all the aspects of the experience human being. Most of this project is systemize in its two great philosophical books: The being and the Critical nothing and of the reason dialectic. METHOD FENOMENOLGICO the fenomenologico method consists of showing consists of showing what presented and to clarify this phenomenon.

The Movement

Premise one: the movement had an origin. If the movement was perpetual then the series of previous movements to any instant in the time would be infinite, that is, being overcome one instant any in the time as referencial it is arrived conclusion of that it stops arriving at this instant if they would have succeeded infinite movements. What it generates a paradox, therefore it is impossible to arrive at the infinite and for in such a way the movement it cannot be perpetual, but it had an origin. Premise two: the existence is perpetual. So that the existence could appear would be necessary that before it had possibilities. What it is a paradox, therefore nothing can precede the existence, then to the existence it does not have I begin, but she is perpetual.

Silogism: refutation of the mecanicismo. If the movement was necessary to the existence, then it could not have existence without movement and as the existence is perpetual the movement also would be, but as the movement has an origin it is not necessary to the existence or it does not happen for necessity, but it could not exist. Therefore an inevitable predestination for the facts does not exist, but everything could be different. Ahead of diverse possibilities for the movement and no trend for its existence if it makes necessary that it occurs voluntarily or it never would exist. Conclusion. As we saw the movement had an origin and this means that it had one I begin for the Creation, therefore nothing appears without movement. On the other hand the existence is perpetual and this means that before the Creation already it had existence. We also saw that the movement in the universe does not occur for necessity, but that it is generated voluntarily what means that the Creation has an intention.

French Population

The complete theory of Darwin was published in 1859, with the heading the origin of the species by means of the natural election. This book, that was more known only as the origin of the species, and of which if it said that ' ' it caused a commotion in mundo' ' , it was depleted in the first day of its publication and had been made six successive editions. Georges Louis Leclerc Buffon or conde of Buffon (1707-1788), French naturalist, author of one of first treated the global ones on history to not-based biology and geology in the Bible. Its main workmanship was natural History, work in 36 volumes published between 1749 and 1789. In it if it offers the first naturalistic version of the history of the Land, in which it appeals exclusively the empirical causes to explain the natural phenomena.

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), French comparative anatomist, specialized in the reconstruction of fsseis and superior education. It defended the immutability of the species, affirming that the efficient drawing of each animal is the test of that this cannot be varied since its creation. Its great workmanship, the Animal Kingdom (1817), was considered basic in natural history of Great-Britain and France, until the publication, in 1859, of the Origin of the Species, Charles Darwin. Robert Malthus (1766-1834), economist and British demographer, its main contribution was the theory on the growth of the population. According to Malthus, when a superior increase of products to the one of the population happens, the growth tax is stimulated; when the population increases in relation to the food production, the growth is paralizado due to hunger, to the illnesses and the wars. The works of Malthus had stimulated the first systematic demographic studies. Its main workmanship is Essay on Population (Assay on the population).