Tag: computers and internet

International Conference

Consider the basic and most popular programming languages. Ada – high level programming language that focuses on the use of real-time systems and designed to automate management tasks processes and / or devices, such as on-board (ships, aircraft, etc.) computers. Initiated by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1980. Named after the English mathematician Ada Augusta Byron (Lovelace), who lived in the years 1815-1851. Algol – high level programming language that focuses on the description of algorithms for solving computational problems. Was created in 1958 by specialists of Western European countries for research. Version of Algol-60 was adopted by the International Conference in Paris (1960) and is widely used on computers 2 nd generation.

Version of Algol-68, developed by a team of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) in 1968, received the status of international programming language based solution not only computing, but also information problems. While there is currently Algol is almost never used, he served as the basis or had significant impact on the development of more modern languages such as Ada, Pascal, etc. basic (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Born in the 60 years in America. basic was designed as a simple language for rapid development. basic has become the de facto standard for Microcomputer precisely because of its simplicity, both in development and in implementation. But to achieve this quality of a number of decisions (no typing, the rows and unstructured goto, etc.) that affect the style of learning programming. In addition, the lack of means of expression led to a huge number of dialects that are not compatible with each other.

Promptness And Quality – Quite Compatible Concepts

In the life of any organization, there are times when self is an urgent need that any manufacture, using digital printing. As an option here it may be caused by human error, for example, an employee is banal forgot about an important task, or that often just piled up, brings equipment. In particular, if such products represents a flyer in demand in the midst of an advertising company, or any sort of reference books during the seminar, in fact the lack of opportunities in a matter of urgency to print everything you need is likely to end in disaster. As is the plan, really lucky residents of the Russian capital moreover, and the Moscow region, as at their disposal there is a special organization that is able to resolve all such difficult situations. Eliot Horowitz can aid you in your search for knowledge. In addition it should be noted that the convenience of working with this company, in addition to that lies in the fact that the Internet is its official site. Directly which is available not only to get acquainted with the given number of different services, but also create an order on the party circuit products.

It is important in addition to mention that absolutely all the urgent digital printing is done by trained professionals in the ultra-tech equipment. Absolutely every client will be very happy optimal timing of order execution, affordable cost, of course, and decent quality at a possible option if he is, for example, need to print flyers, Moscow, and then to actually turn into such a firm. Experts in the field of advertising, in any form are quite capable at its best print the most fascinating and colorful flyers. It is possible to print products to customer's sample or the same development its version, and it goes after a full agreement with the client, such firm in the same hour will begin printing. In addition, it should be noted, moreover, another type of service provided by the company. It is precisely in the production of number plates. Currently, the number plates have earned widespread use, but due to the fact that they are a valuable marketing tool, the need to underestimate the number plates in practice is not acceptable.

This kind of products able to interest a very different company. In general, within which stands out, hotels, sports clubs, variety stores, regardless of the type of products sold. Referring to the company, there several possibilities, say for example, to issue the manufacturing number plates on a personal sample, or to trust the professionals who will be directly behind the invention of high quality number plates. Produced by professional equipment such number plates, with the company logo can help to successfully identify, in general, any company among their competitors, while at the same time much will simplify some aspects of relations with their customers. Actually at the site of the organization, it can easily become acquainted with the views of Numbers, and when a desire to book their development and manufacturing. Also, absolutely any customer may well be convinced in a timely performance of each type of order, as well as on a strictly individual approach of the organization to each client.

IT Outsourcing

In our interesting and dynamic time, comprehensively cover the various branches of business are the same well-established principles of division of labor, but in more unusual forms. All this is reason for the current crisis, which leads to such interesting consequences. For example, dozens of posts have simply not relevant today, but they appear simultaneously with this and other areas previously not so popular. We will talk about such a direction as it Outsourcing. In classical definition, outsourcing – is the transfer of third-party service provider (outsourcer), some are not core functions of the enterprise, which is a highly specialized outsourcing. Which gives all parties a significant benefits.

Enterprise is not necessary to include more 'expensive' experts, and by means of their "lease" at the right time or in the right situation provides the highest quality services at affordable money. In particular, developing big steps now IT-outsourcing is increasingly needed in a market that brings together a wide range of services, whether it be servicing computers in the organization and maintenance of computer networks in general. According to forecasts professionals in 2009 in Russia, you can mark the 'Year of it outsourcing. " All possible cost reductions by all available methods becomes an essential criterium crisis management program for each enterprise. That eventually also provides an opportunity to concentrate their efforts and resources on their core business functions without being distracted by minor that it can now instruct the outsourcer, for example, the subscriber server maintenance and service and setup of computers, which is just, his specialty.

Possible difficulties in the drafting of professional networks can solve the it outsourcer. The advantages of combining computers in a local production networks are not voidable for today. But qualitatively organize data for joint access to large numbers of staff and not lose performance in the future, priority when designing networks. To anticipate possible network upgrades, change the number of computers or even probable office move to another building, here it will be helpful, "acquired overwork "valuable experience and professionalism of it outsourcing in conjunction with services such – maintenance of computers and network configuration is urgent and kompyutera.

Authentication Requirements

1. Introduction Authentication requirements of computing systems and networking protocols vary within very wide limits. Passwords that are vulnerable to attack a passive type, can not meet the requirements of modern Internet CERT94. And in addition to passive attacks in a network environment nearly always taken active methods Bellovin89, Bellovin92, Bellovin93, CB94, Stoll90. 2. Definitions and terminology used herein active attacks. Trying to incorrect modification data for authentication or authorization by inserting false packets into the data stream, or derivatives thereof.

Asymmetric cryptography. Cryptographic system that uses different keys for encryption and decryption. These two keys are mathematically related. Also called public key cryptography. Authentication.

Identifying the source of information. Authorization. Granting access rights based on authentication. Privacy Policy. Protection of information, so that the person is not authorized to access the data, could not read them, even if you have access to the appropriate directory or network packet. Encryption. Mechanism used to ensure confidentiality. Integrity. Protecting information from unauthorized modification. Key certificate. Information structure, consisting of a public key identifier persons, systems and information, authenticates the key and association with a public key identifier. Keys used by pem, are examples of key certificate Kent93. Passive attack. An attack on an authentication system that does not involve the introduction of any data stream, but based on the possibility of monitoring the information exchanged between other partners. This information can be used later. Source text (Plain-text). Plain text. Attack play (Replay Attack). The attack on the authentication system by recording and subsequent playback previously sent the correct message, or parts thereof.


It is possible that data can be transferred to the third car. In this case, the user arranges the control channel with two servers and organizuetpryamoy data channel between them. Management team are by the user, and data directly between the servers (Figure 4.3). The control channel should be opened when transferring data between machines. In the case of the closure of data transfer is terminated.

Fig. 4.3. Connection with two different servers and data transfer between them. Modes of communication in the protocol a lot of attention paid to different ways of exchanging data between machines of different architectures. Indeed, what is there not on the Internet, from pc and Macs to supercomputers. They all have different word length and many different order of bits in a word. In addition, various faylovyesistemy work with different data organization, which is expressed in the concept of an access method.

In general, case, in terms of ftp, the exchange can be threaded, or block, encoded in an intermediate format or without text or binary. Pritekstovom exchange of all data is converted to ascii and in this form are transmitted over the network. Exception constitute only the data ibm mainframe, which at in ebcdic, if both interacting machines ibm. Binary data is transmitted sequence of bits, or are during the session management. Usually, when streaming data is transferred in one session one data file, while block method for can send multiple files. Having described in general terms, the communication protocol, you can go to the description of means of sharing via ftp.


The quality and speed of data transmission at high level, prices for services are not high. True modem itself a bit pricey, but some operators modems lease-purchase. Connecting via a dedicated channel. Now, many providers offer services connect to the Internet via leased line. For a start, I'll specify who the provider. In summary, the Provider is a company that provides services to connect to the internet. In order not to go into technical details, I will simple: a dedicated line – a line of communication (kaknal data).

This connection data is transferred via special cable (fiber or twisted pair), which on the one hand is connected to equipment provider, usually located in the basement or the attic of the building, on the other side of the network card on your computer. And as the data transfer can be wireless, using WiFi connection, which is very convenient when moving within the building. I myself use this method of connection and see it only advantages, it is high, very high quality data transmission, and low cost, and connectivity unlimited package mobility with WiFi connection. The only thing necessary – is the availability of the network card and if you have WiFi, you need a WiFi adapter. Radiointernet – connect with a special antenna. This kind of connection is used if provider for some reason can not stretch the cable to the desired location using the Internet, but can provide a wireless access point. Access point must be within line of sight at a distance no more than 5km away from the desired location using the Internet.

Privacy Enhanced Mail

For example, Secure snmp and SNMPv2 compute cryptographic MD5 checksum of shared secret for a block of data and information that must be authenticated Rivest92, GM93. This serves to In order to authenticate the source of the data it is assumed that this amount is extremely difficult to falsify. She did not mention the fact that they themselves sent data is valid, but only that they are sent exactly the data sender. Cryptographic checksums can be used to get on the effective authentication, and are particularly useful in the exchange of computer-computer. The main difficulty of implementation – the transfer of keys. 4.4. Digital signature (signature) digital signature is a cryptographic mechanism that is analogous to a handwritten signature. It serves to authenticate the data block, and confirms that it received from the sender.

A digital signature using asymmetric cryptography (public keys) may be useful to determine the source of messages even if the sender denies authorship. Digital signature provides authentication without confidentiality, as the text of the message is not encrypted. A digital signature is used in a system of confidential mail pem (Privacy Enhanced Mail) Linn93, Kent93, Balenson93, Kaliski93. 5. User authentication on a computer there many different approaches to user authentication on remote computer. There are two threats when accessing remote computers. First, an attacker can intercept the user id and password, and later use them in an attack 'play'. Secondly, the form of a password allows an attacker to try to guess. Currently, most systems use plain text to send passwords over the network channels that greatly simplifies the interception Anderson84, Kantor91.