Processing of metal man made more than five thousand years. At the dawn of blacksmithing use soft metals, which are easy to handle. In the jewelry business has long used gold and silver, and for creation tools, and quality of weapons used copper, and much later they began to process the iron as a more time-consuming stuff. Most metal working was poor quality and very low volume production. But with every passing decade, the need for high quality metal is growing rapidly and by the early twentieth century, the volume of smelting reached twenty-eight million tons.
With the development of industrial production, except for the smelting of ferrous metals, increases the need for extraction of rare metals such as copper, aluminum, titanium, zinc, tungsten and others. To obtain the metal with the necessary physical and chemical composition are two basic method. The first method involves obtaining the metal with the desired characteristics of the starting materials. The second method allows to obtain the necessary form in a plastic state without altering the chemical properties material. Allocate the following technological processes of metal: pressing, forging, drawing, stamping and rolling. When such methods of plastic processing of metal attached to not only the desired shape and size, but also significantly improve the mechanical characteristics of parts. The most important method of processing metal is definitely rolling, and accounts for 80% of the melted metal and each year the release of finished steel increased, extended range and improved product quality.
Rolling metal produce large products for industrial use in the construction and engineering, as well as receive various blanks (sheet steel, bars) for further processing by other species – stamping or forging. Pressed for forging is often used rolled billet. Drawing using metal produced on wire looms. One of the most important facts production of finished steel is the principle of continuity of the process and automation of manufacturing operations. To improve the characteristics of products rolled using heat treatment, tin, alloying and coating protective layer. In today's world of metal all the more important are the processes of pressing – cold heading, forging, extrusion, which allow to make the most complex piece forms, even from metals that are poorly exposed to the strain. A distinctive feature of the metal pressure is relatively low energy consumption and low metal loss. To increase production, reduce the cost and improve product quality of metal implement special stamps, improve mechanisms for automatic transport and forging operation that applies technology induction and contact electric heating billets are shops for the manufacture of universal and specialized components that allows you to create automated and in-line conveyor belt. The scientific approach to plastic metal processing allows to calculate the cost-effectiveness, to determine the most rational conditions for obtaining high-quality products, as well as select the optimal modes of technological processes, as well as necessary equipment.