In 1642, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed Governor. With him, the island turns into an important center of trade, and what sets It would become one of the main markets of slaves for the European colonies in America especially for Brazil, made this which gives a strong boost to the economic development of the colony. The island was occupied by the English in two occasions, ranging from 1800 to 1803, and from 1807 to 1816, both motivated by the Napoleonic wars in Europe. Almost simultaneously, occur the independence movements of the Hispanic colonies on the continent, which contributes to giving refuge to heroes such as Simon Bolivar, and with the participation of at least two of its key characters, such as Manuel Piar, liberator of the province of Guayana, and Luis Brion, who became Admiral of the Republic of Colombia. For the year 1863 slavery is abolished in the Netherlands, including in them the island of Curacao colonies, which leads to a severe economic crisis. Because of this, a significant number of its inhabitants emigrated in search of work, mainly on the island of Cuba, where work on the sugarcane plantations of sugar. The discovery of oilfields in Venezuela, in the early 20th century, specifically, in the Lake Maracaibo basin, leads to the establishment of one of the most important refineries in the world for its time.
This gives a new impetus to its economy, and the arrival of a new wave of immigrants. During the second world war, military of the United States, laying down that the island is one of the main sources of fuel for the operations of the allies in Europe. Consequently, its port is besieged by Nazi Germany at various times submarine. On May 30, 1963 produced popular uprisings in the island, motivated by global contraction in the oil industry and the unhappy product of exclusion within its main industry.