Traditionally it was considered that mathematics as a science emerged in order to do calculations in commerce, to measure the Earth and to predict astronomical events These three needs can be related in some way to the broad subdivision of mathematics the study of structure, space and change. Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics were largely developed by the Hellenistic mathematics, which were refined methods (especially the introduction of mathematical rigor in the proofs) and extended the issues peculiar to this science. Mathematics in Islam, in turn, developed and extended mathematics known by these ancient civilizations. Many Greek and Arabic texts on mathematics were translated into Latin, which led to further development of mathematics in the Middle Ages. From ancient times to the Middle Ages, bursts of creativity mathematics were followed often by centuries of stagnation.
But from the Italian Renaissance in the sixteenth century, new mathematical developments, interacting with contemporary scientific discoveries, were growing exponentially until today. Chronologically, this story could be divided into four blocks according to the schedule set by AN Kolmogorov: a) Birth of Mathematics: This period lasts until the VI-V centuries BC when the mathematics becomes an independent science and methodology in order to own . It also could be called ancient or pre-Hellenic mathematics and shall typically involve the mathematics of the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and India. Greece would be located halfway between this period and the next. b) Period of elementary mathematics: A continuation of previous runs from the VI-V century BC to the late sixteenth century.
During this period were obtained great achievements in the continuing study of mathematics began to develop analytic geometry and analysis infinitesimal. c) Period of training of varying magnitude math: The Beginning of period is represented by the introduction of the variables in the analytic geometry of Descartes and the establishment of differential and integral calculus in the work of I. GV Newton and Leibniz. During this period formed almost every discipline now known, and also the classics of contemporary mathematics. This period would extend roughly to the mid-nineteenth century. d) Period of contemporary mathematics: In development since mid-nineteenth century. In this period the volume of spatial forms and quantitative relations covered by the methods of mathematics has increased dramatically, and we could even say exponentially since the advent of the computer. To complement this theme, I’ll tell you that the various branches of mathematics are: a) Algebra and Arithmetic. b) Mathematical Analysis. c) Geometry.